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Antibodies Help Control Harmful Forms of Intestinal Fungi

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Antibodies protection against harmful forms of fungi in the intestine can be disrupted in some patients with Crohn’s disease, a condition caused by chronic inflammation of the intestine, according to a new study by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine. ..

Previous studies have shown that the immune system plays an important role in maintaining a healthy balance of gut bacteria.The new study was published on November 22nd Nature microbiology, Senior author Iliyan Iliev, associate professor of immunology in medicine, and his team investigated whether it could also play a role in the management of intestinal fungi.

Unlike bacteria, fungi can change shape depending on environmental conditions, and certain forms are harmful to humans. In particular, a type of fungus called Candida albicans changes from a non-pathogenic yeast type to a type that produces hyphae that can invade tissues and cause damage.

Researchers have found that antibodies secreted in the intestine help control the etiology of candida albicans in healthy people, disabling this protective mechanism in people with Crohn’s disease and harmful overgrowth of pathogenic fungi. I have discovered that it can cause. Candida albicans intestinal excess is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and several other conditions that directly or indirectly affect the gastrointestinal tract.

“Anti-intestinal antibodies are involved in maintaining certain intestinal fungi, such as Candida albicans, in a benign, so-called symbiotic form,” said Iriev, a scientist at the Zil Roberts Institute for Inflammatory Intestines. I found that. ” Weil Cornell Medical illness. “This process is interrupted in patients with Crohn’s disease.”

In their experiments, researchers found that an antibody called secretory immunoglobulin A (slgA) in the feces of healthy mice selectively binds to the form of C. albicans in hyphae and stops its spread. discovered. They also found that these antibodies also bind to the hyphae of healthy human feces.

“These antibodies preferentially bind to the hyphae,” said Itai Delon, a PhD student in the lab. Specifically, they bind to sites on the hyphae and produce the virulence factors that these fungi use to harm host tissues. However, the antibody does not preferentially bind to harmless yeast. This suggests that antibodies may help the body maintain a healthy balance of intestinal fungi by preventing the inheritance of harmful forms of fungi.

Researchers also found that patients with Crohn’s disease, who develop severe inflammation of the colon and small intestine, have higher levels of antifungal antibodies in their blood compared to healthy adults. However, these antibodies do not appear to be secreted at high levels in the intestine to counter Candida albicans hyphae. Samples from the colon of these patients reveal an excess of fungi with hyphae.

“Impairment of this regulatory mechanism in mice and patients with Crohn’s disease can contribute to increased hyphal growth in the intestine,” Iriev said.

When researchers added antifungal antibodies to human cells grown in culture with C. albicans, the fungi produced fewer hyphae.

“These antifungal antibodies appear to have some degree of” disarmament “in the hyphae,” Delon said.

The result is that the therapeutic search for antifungal antibodies can be C. It suggests that it may be a way to help patients who develop overgrowth of albicans. Not all patients with this inflammatory bowel disease have overgrowth of this type of fungus, but some may be an important cause of the disease, Iriev said.

“The intestinal fungi in the gut, especially the Candida albicans community, form our immunity,” Iriev said. “We are developing these antibodies and they appear to play a protective role in certain situations.”

The major immune fungus of the intestine against infection

For more information:
Jordan Hindson, Intestinal Mycoviota Modulates Immunity mediated by Antifungal Antibodies, Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s41575-021-00439-z

Provided by
Cornell University

Quote: Antibodies help control harmful forms of enteric fungi obtained on November 30, 2021 from https: //medicalxpress.com/news/2021-11-antibodies-gut-fungi.html ( November 30, 2021)

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Polish Researchers Invent Anti-smog Sound Cannon

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“We use vertical shock waves generated by the combustion of acetylene and air,” says Dominique Grivos on the right.

In the constant fight against Poland’s smog, scientists are experimenting with new “cannons” that use sound waves to push toxic particles into the atmosphere, allowing residents to breathe.

The experimental device sits on a metal container and consists of a large upside-down cone that makes a loud noise every 6 seconds.

The purpose is to track smog From Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, where the inhabitants face problems every winter in a heavily polluted state, like many Polish towns and cities. Heating system..

When the sun goes down, the chimneys spew out thick smoke, causing heavy smog to fall into the town.

Poland is one of the most polluted countries in Europe, violating EU standards by hundreds of percentage points at the worst of the year.

By creating sound waves, researchers can “Cannon“Helps reduce the concentration of harmful PM2.5 and PM10 particles in the town air.

“We use vertical shock waves generated by the burning of acetylene and air,” said Dominik Grybos of the Mining and Metallurgy Academy in Krakow, one of the inventors.

“The waves are Polluted air Higher, “he told AFP.

The Toxic particles It is sent hundreds of meters (yards) high and is harmless to the inhabitants.

The experimental sound “cannon”, as described by Polish researchers, can blow toxic particles into the sky hundreds of meters.

“We found that using the cannon for 30 minutes to an hour reduced pollution by 15-30% within a range of 2-3 km (1.2-1.9 miles) from the cannon,” says Grybos. He adds that the effect lasts “between 1 and 3 hours.”

Researchers are trying to calculate the required frequency of blast waves and the duration and time required for the entire procedure.

The price is estimated to be 1,000 to 1,500 zloty ($ 250 to $ 375) for one hour of use.

Mr. Grivos said he hopes that the invention will find commercial use, especially in Poland.

Residents of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska are in widespread support for this idea, despite the sound.

“The smog is very heavy here. The smell is so bad that I can’t deflate the apartment. If that helps, let them test,” said 43-year-old accountant Joranta Warkowich.

“I can hardly hear the sound. It’s like a fireworks display,” she added.

Toxic smog chokes Indian capital during Diwali celebration

© 2022 AFP

Quote: Polish researchers obtained the Anti-Smog Sound Cannon (January 20, 2022) from https: //phys.org/news/2022-01-anti-smog-cannon.html on January 20, 2022. ) Was invented

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Jake Paul Reportedly Earned $ 45 Million in 2021 and Logan Earned $ 18 Million.

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Jake When Logan Paul It was a money-making machine in 2021 … People who turned from YouTube superstars to boxers reportedly made a total of $ 63 million over the past year.

Forbes We just released a list of the highest-paying influencers on social media platforms on Friday … Problem Child comes in second and is expected to generate $ 45 million in revenue.

The outlet reports that about $ 40 million of that Mula came through the boxing ring-Jake is defeating Ben Askren April and Tyron Woodley In August and December.

Whether or not Jake is considered a “real” boxer, the serious money he has in his pocket is indisputable-his income in 2021 made him among the top athletes last year. You put it in … Canelo AlvarezIt reportedly brought in $ 34 million.

Logan, who ranked 8th on Forbes’ YouTube list, reportedly earned $ 18 million in 2021 … Floyd Mayweather, His “Impaulsive” podcast, and other business opportunities.

Despite the insane profits of 2021, neither Jake nor Logan could beat Beast As the number one spot, the YouTube King brought only $ 54 million.

Jake Paul reportedly earned $ 45 million in 2021 and Logan earned $ 18 million.

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Florida Black Bear Killed After Attacking a Dog Walking Woman

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Volcia County, Florida — A black bear in Florida was killed after attacking a woman walking a dog on Thursday night.

and Press releaseThe Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), along with the Volusia County Sheriff’s Office, said it answered a call at DeBary around 9 pm about a woman who was injured by a black bear while walking her dog.

Upon arrival, the agent found an adult female bear of a yearling in a nearby tree.

“FWC bear biologists threw adult bears in trees and humanely killed them according to FWC policy to protect public safety,” FWC said in a press release.

The FWC refused to capture the yearlings because “three 100-pound yearlings are old enough to survive on their own.”

The woman was treated by EMS for a non-life-threatening injury. According to the FWC, her dog was not injured.

If you feel threatened by a bear, please contact the FWC Wildlife Alert Hotline (888-404-FWCC (3922)). Observe sick, injured, dead, or orphaned bears. Or report someone who is harming or intentionally feeding the bear. For more information on how to avoid bear-to-bear collisions, please visit: MyFWC.com/Bear also BearWise.org..

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