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Experts Name New Species of Human Ancestors

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Artist rendering of homo bodoensis. Credit: Ettore Mazza

An international team of researchers, led by Dr. Miljana Roxandick, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Winnipeg, has announced the naming of a new species of human ancestry, Homo bodhensis. This species inhabited Africa in the mid-Pleistocene about 500,000 years ago and was a direct ancestor of modern humans.

The Mid-Pleistocene (now renamed Chibanian, dated 774,000-129,000 years ago) is our own species in Africa (Homo sapiens), our closest relatives, Neanderthals in Europe. It is important because I saw the rise of (Homo neanderthalensis).

However, Human evolution This era is not well understood and is a problem that paleoanthropologists call “middle turmoil.” The announcement of Homo bodoensis hopes to bring some clarity to this mysterious but important chapter in human evolution.

The new name is now based on a reassessment of existing fossils from Africa and Eurasia period.. Traditionally, these fossils have been variously assigned to either Homo heidelbergensis or Homo rhodesiensis, both of which had multiple, often contradictory definitions.

According to the lead author of the study, Roksandic, “talking about human evolution during this period was impossible due to the lack of proper terminology to recognize human geographic variation.”

Recently, the evidence of DNA is H. Some European fossils, called heidelbergensis, are actually early Neanderthals, indicating that their names are redundant. For the same reason, according to co-author Xiu-Jie Wu (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, China), the name should be abandoned when describing fossil humans in East Asia.

An African fossil dating back to this time, which further confuses the story, is H. Sometimes referred to as both heidelbergensis and H. rhodesiensis. H. rhodesiensis is not well defined and its name has never been widely accepted. This is partly due to his relationship with Cecil Rhodes and the horrific crimes committed during African colonial rule. This is an unacceptable honor given the important work being done towards the decolonization of science.

The name “bodoensis” comes from the skull found in Bodo D’ar, Ethiopia, and the new species is understood to be a direct ancestor of humans. In the new classification, H. bodoensis describes most of the mid-Pleistocene humans from Africa and some from Southeastern Europe, but many from the latter continent are reclassified as Neanderthals.

A new species of human ancestor, Homo bodhensis, lived in Africa during the mid-Pleistocene. Credit: Ettore Mazza

Co-lead author Predrag Radovic (University of Belgrade, Serbia) said, “In order to facilitate communication, terms need to be clear in science. If they conflict with fossil records, they should be treated as absolute. Not. “

According to one of the co-authors, Christopher Bee (University of Hawaii, Manoa, Faculty of Anthropology), H. The introduction of bodoensis aims to “break the Gordian knot and allow us to clearly communicate this important time in human evolution.” ).

Roksandic agrees that: “The naming of new species is important because the International Animal Naming Commission only allows renaming under very tightly defined rules. It has been around for a long time and the names of new classifications. I’m sure it will survive, only if other researchers use it. “

The study is published at Evolutionary Anthropology publishes news and reviews..

Video: Late Pleistocene Confusion

For more information:
Solution of “Middle Confusion”: Homo bodoensis sp. In November, Evolutionary Anthropology publishes news and reviews, DOI: 10.1002 / EVAN.21929

Courtesy of the University of Winnipeg

Quote: Experts are a new species of human ancestors acquired on October 28, 2021 from https: //phys.org/news/2021-10-experts-species-human-ancestor.html (October 28, 2021) Give a name to the day)

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Antibodies Help Control Harmful Forms of Intestinal Fungi

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Credit: AIXabay / CC0 public domain

Antibodies protection against harmful forms of fungi in the intestine can be disrupted in some patients with Crohn’s disease, a condition caused by chronic inflammation of the intestine, according to a new study by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine. ..

Previous studies have shown that the immune system plays an important role in maintaining a healthy balance of gut bacteria.The new study was published on November 22nd Nature microbiology, Senior author Iliyan Iliev, associate professor of immunology in medicine, and his team investigated whether it could also play a role in the management of intestinal fungi.

Unlike bacteria, fungi can change shape depending on environmental conditions, and certain forms are harmful to humans. In particular, a type of fungus called Candida albicans changes from a non-pathogenic yeast type to a type that produces hyphae that can invade tissues and cause damage.

Researchers have found that antibodies secreted in the intestine help control the etiology of candida albicans in healthy people, disabling this protective mechanism in people with Crohn’s disease and harmful overgrowth of pathogenic fungi. I have discovered that it can cause. Candida albicans intestinal excess is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and several other conditions that directly or indirectly affect the gastrointestinal tract.

“Anti-intestinal antibodies are involved in maintaining certain intestinal fungi, such as Candida albicans, in a benign, so-called symbiotic form,” said Iriev, a scientist at the Zil Roberts Institute for Inflammatory Intestines. I found that. ” Weil Cornell Medical illness. “This process is interrupted in patients with Crohn’s disease.”

In their experiments, researchers found that an antibody called secretory immunoglobulin A (slgA) in the feces of healthy mice selectively binds to the form of C. albicans in hyphae and stops its spread. discovered. They also found that these antibodies also bind to the hyphae of healthy human feces.

“These antibodies preferentially bind to the hyphae,” said Itai Delon, a PhD student in the lab. Specifically, they bind to sites on the hyphae and produce the virulence factors that these fungi use to harm host tissues. However, the antibody does not preferentially bind to harmless yeast. This suggests that antibodies may help the body maintain a healthy balance of intestinal fungi by preventing the inheritance of harmful forms of fungi.

Researchers also found that patients with Crohn’s disease, who develop severe inflammation of the colon and small intestine, have higher levels of antifungal antibodies in their blood compared to healthy adults. However, these antibodies do not appear to be secreted at high levels in the intestine to counter Candida albicans hyphae. Samples from the colon of these patients reveal an excess of fungi with hyphae.

“Impairment of this regulatory mechanism in mice and patients with Crohn’s disease can contribute to increased hyphal growth in the intestine,” Iriev said.

When researchers added antifungal antibodies to human cells grown in culture with C. albicans, the fungi produced fewer hyphae.

“These antifungal antibodies appear to have some degree of” disarmament “in the hyphae,” Delon said.

The result is that the therapeutic search for antifungal antibodies can be C. It suggests that it may be a way to help patients who develop overgrowth of albicans. Not all patients with this inflammatory bowel disease have overgrowth of this type of fungus, but some may be an important cause of the disease, Iriev said.

“The intestinal fungi in the gut, especially the Candida albicans community, form our immunity,” Iriev said. “We are developing these antibodies and they appear to play a protective role in certain situations.”

The major immune fungus of the intestine against infection

For more information:
Jordan Hindson, Intestinal Mycoviota Modulates Immunity mediated by Antifungal Antibodies, Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s41575-021-00439-z

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Cornell University

Quote: Antibodies help control harmful forms of enteric fungi obtained on November 30, 2021 from https: //medicalxpress.com/news/2021-11-antibodies-gut-fungi.html ( November 30, 2021)

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Researchers Are Developing Fast, Accurate Tests to Detect Viruses Like SARS-COV-2

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Credit: Unsplash / CC0 public domain

Researchers at the University of Central Florida have developed a device that detects viruses such as SARS-COV-2 in the body more accurately and as quickly as the rapid detection tests commonly used today.

Optical sensors use nanotechnology to accurately identify viruses in seconds. Blood sample..Researchers say the device can tell if someone has it with 95% accuracy virusSignificant improvements to the current rapid testing, which experts warn, may be less accurate. Testing for the virus is important for early treatment and prevention of the spread of the virus.

The results are detailed in a new study in the journal Nano letter..

Researchers tested the device with a sample of dengue virus, a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes dengue fever and poses a threat to people in the tropics. However, this technology can be easily adapted to detect other viruses such as SARS-COV-2, says Debashis Chanda, a professor at UCF’s NanoScience Technology Center, co-author of the study. ..

“High-sensitivity optical sensors, along with the rapid manufacturing approach used in this task, can transform this promising technology with a high degree of specificity and accuracy for detection of any virus, including SARS-COV-2 and its mutations. I promise, “says Chanda. “Here we have demonstrated a reliable technique that combines a genetic code such as PCR with an optical system on a chip to accurately detect the virus directly from the blood.”

This device closely matches the accuracy of gold standard PCR-based tests, but with near-instantaneous results rather than days of reception. Its accuracy is significantly improved over the current rapid antigen test warned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and is inaccurate if the viral load is low or if the test instructions are not followed correctly. Results may occur.

The device works with a gold nanoscale pattern that reflects the virus’s signature that is set to detect on blood samples. Different viruses can be detected by using different DNA sequences that selectively target a particular virus.

The key to device performance is the ability to detect viruses directly from blood samples without the need for sample preparation or purification. This speeds up testing and improves accuracy.

“Most of the biosensor demonstrations in the literature use buffers as a test matrix to contain targeted analytes,” says Chanda. “But these approaches are not practical in real-world applications. Complex body fluids containing target biomarkers, such as blood, are the main cause of sensing, while at the same time the main cause of protein contamination leading to sensor failure. Because it is the cause. “

Researchers have confirmed the effectiveness of the device in multiple tests using different viral concentration levels and solution environments, including the presence of non-target viral biomarkers.

Abraham Vazquez Guardard, a postdoc at Northwestern University who was the lead author of the study and worked as a postdoctoral student in Chanda’s lab, said he was excited about the possibility.

“There was a previous demonstration of optical biosensing with human serum, but it requires offline complex and dedicated sample preparation by skilled personnel. This is a product not available in regular point of care applications.” Vazquez-Guardado says. “This study demonstrates for the first time an integrated device that separates plasma from blood and detects target viruses without pretreatment, with potential for practical use in the near future.”

According to Chanda, the next step in the study will include adapting the device to detect more viruses.

Portable, Affordable, Accurate, Fast: Team Invents New COVID-19 Test

For more information:
Abraham Vazquez-Guardado et al., DNA-modified plasmon sensor for detecting viral biomarkers directly from blood, Nano letter (2021). DOI: 10.1021 / acs.nanolett.1c01609

Quote: The researchers obtained SARS-COV-2 (2021, November 29, 2021) from https: //phys.org/news/2021-11-rapid-highly-accurate-viruses- on November 29, 2021. ) Develop fast and accurate tests to detect viruses like. sars-cov-.html

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Researchers are developing fast, accurate tests to detect viruses like SARS-COV-2

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Drivers to Face Traffic Delays This Week on I-25 Near Colorado Springs

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A paving project on Interstate 25 south of Colorado Springs will delay traffic during the next several days, according to a Colorado Department of Transportation news release.

The paving project, which includes filling potholes with asphalt and making road repairs between Santa Fe Boulevard and South Academy Boulevard near Fort Carson, will reduce traffic to a single lane during daytime hours (9 a.m.-3 p.m.), with a speed limit of 55 mph, Tuesday through Thursday, the agency said.

Drivers are encouraged to use alternate routes during the maintenance period and those who drive through the construction zone are advised to slow down, allow extra space between vehicles and build in extra travel time. Fines will be doubled in the work zones, the release said.

1 killed in Pueblo County crash

The maintenance is a facet of a larger project designed to improve safety around military facilities in the Pikes Peak Region, the release said.

For more traffic information visit COtrip.org.

Colorado Springs weather: Record-breaking temps possible Monday, throughout week



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