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‘How Much Water Should I Drink?’



Every month, tens of thousands of people ask Google:

“How much water should I drink?”

And Google points them to stories that go something like this:

“Most people are dehydrated—and they don’t know it.”

They list headaches, constipation, bad breath, and other dehydration dangers. And they encourage you to guzzle water, lest you dry up like a sad raisin.

In reality, however, the answer to “how much water should I drink?” is incredibly short and simple:

If you’re thirsty, drink something. If you’re not thirsty, don’t worry about it.

Sooo… why doesn’t this article end right here?

Because there are a few exceptions.

(And maybe you’re one of those exceptions. Feel free to skip ahead if you’re an athlete or exerciser, you’re pregnant, or you’re over the age of 65.)

Plus, I’m guessing you might not believe that staying hydrated is so simple.

So let’s walk through how much water you should drink together.

Want to know exactly what to drink?

Download our complete guide to liquid nutrition. You’ll learn:

That you don’t have to swear off the drinks you love in the name of better health and nutrition.
How to make beverage choices that match your lifestyle, taste preferences, and goals, no matter what your starting point.

Download your FREE ‘What Should I Drink?!’ PDF guide here.

Consider this visual resource the uncomplicated answer to every question you (or your clients) have ever had about what to drink.

Why do you need water?

You might’ve already heard:

Your body is more than 60 percent water.

It uses that fluid for some obvious things—blood, sweat, tears—and some less obvious things: regulating body temperature, helping your body make hormones, and stopping your brain from smashing into your skull when you’re doing burpees.

It’s true that chronic dehydration can raise your risk for a host of problems no one wants to have: kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and negative cognitive and physical performance.1

But there’s a difference between chronic dehydration (being mildly dehydrated a lot of the time) and acute dehydration (which is more severe, and requires timely intervention).

Most people are not chronically dehydrated.

When I give workshops, I often go through client case studies—asking the audience to tell me what they would suggest.

Without fail, someone raises their hand and proclaims: “The first thing I’d do is have them drink more water.”

“Why?” I ask.

That’s when they tell me: “Well, most people are dehydrated.”

This is a misconception. According to the Center of Disease Control’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the average US adult easily meets—and even surpasses—their water needs.2

Thirst: Actually a pretty reliable sense.

Most people are like my new puppy, Charley.

Charley’s cute, right? She’s also not dehydrated.

Charley drinks when she’s thirsty, and she does just fine—no special formulas or calculations required.

And our sense of thirst works just as exquisitely.

A part of our brain, called the lamina terminus, monitors blood volume and blood osmolality (the ratio of salt to liquid), among other factors, to determine whether the body needs more or less fluid. If blood volume drops and osmolality rises, the brain turns up that dry feeling in our tongues and throats.3

How much water do you need?

Humans need about 3 liters (101 ounces) of fluid per day, though the exact amount will vary from person to person.

Depending on someone’s diet, about 34 ounces (1 liter) of that will probably come from food, especially if they’re eating watery foods like veggies, fruit, prepared oatmeal, or yogurt.

That leaves about 2 liters (67 ounces) to get from beverages.

So the old “drink 8 cups of water a day”—which adds up to 64 ounces—is actually a pretty good general rule.


How much water you need will depend on a range of factors, like age, weight, health status, and activity level, to name a few. If you’re small and sedentary, you might need less than 3 liters. If you’re in a larger body and also exercise in a hot humid environment, you’ll need more.

That’s why thirst is probably a much better gauge than forcing yourself to guzzle a predetermined volume.

Unless, however, you’re an athlete, elderly, or pregnant.

Does coffee really dehydrate you?

Caffeine increases fluid output somewhat, which shouldn’t come as a surprise to anyone who’s ever had a cup of coffee before boarding a flight. (Damn you, airport cappuccino.)

Those extra trips to the restroom, however, don’t necessarily lead to dehydration.

In one study, researchers asked men to drink either four cups of coffee or four cups of water.

Though the coffee drinkers produced slightly more urine over 24 hours, they were no less hydrated than the water drinkers.4 Other research found the same with cola.5

Bottom line: A cup of coffee, tea, or cola are just as hydrating for you as the same amount of water.

(For more about the pros and cons of coffee, see: All About Coffee.)

How much water should athletes and exercisers drink?

Though your thirst mechanism works well during rest, it doesn’t function as well during activity.

We’ve known this since the 1930s when researchers asked a man and a dog to walk just under 20 miles (32 km) in the 104F (40C) heat of Boulder City, Nevada. Both the man and the dog could drink whenever they wanted. But only the dog finished well hydrated. The man, on the other hand, lost about 6 pounds (3 kg) of his body mass through water loss.6

Research shows that, when people doing intense exercise rely on thirst alone, they tend to under consume fluid, replacing only about half of what they lose.7

People can lose 1-2 percent of their body weight very quickly when they’re exercising intensely in a hot, humid environment. That’s enough to raise heart rate, body temperature, and your perception of effort.8 For aerobic efforts, like cycling, it’ll also slow you down.9

In addition to the liter of fluid you get from food, consume at least 3 liters (101 ounces) of fluid on the days that you exercise.

That breaks down as follows:

1 liter (34 ounces) before and during exercise
1 liter (34 ounces) after exercise
1 liter (34 ounces) throughout the day, with roughly 1-2 cups of water with each meal

During long-duration and/or intense exercise, of course, you lose more than just water. This includes sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes—and it’s important to replace those, too. Otherwise you risk hyponatremia (sodium deficiency).

So, instead of plain water, consume an electrolyte beverage (such as a sports drink) for exercise lasting more than an hour in intense heat and/or humidity or more than two hours in any condition.

How much water should you drink during pregnancy?

When you’re growing a human, your blood volume increases, which boosts your overall fluid needs.

As a general rule of thumb, you’ll want to consume roughly 1 liter (34 ounces) more during pregnancy than you consumed before. If you’re not sure if you’re getting enough, check your urine. (See Are you hydrated? below.)

If your urine is pretty dark, you’re probably underdrinking. If it’s light to clear, you’re doing great.

How much water should older people drink?

When elderly folks are admitted to the hospital, they’re often dehydrated.

That’s probably because, as we get older, our thirst mechanisms don’t work like they used to. Neither do our kidneys. Certain medications can increase urine output, too. Plus, our bodies don’t seem to hold as much fluid.10

All of that increases our risk of becoming dehydrated.

If you’re 65 or older:

Drink an additional 8 to 16 ounces (.25 to .5 liters) of fluid—over and above your level of thirst.
Consume whatever beverage you enjoy—an electrolyte drink, iced tea, or even diet cola. (For more on why hydration is more important than worrying about artificial sweeteners, read: Should you drink diet soda?)
Monitor your urine and drink up if it’s bright yellow or darker. (See Are you hydrated? below for specifics.)
Know the symptoms of dehydration: dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, dry mouth.

How much should I drink to lose weight?

A few years back, researchers did a series of studies that found drinking water could increase calorie burning. 11 12

However, the researchers predicted an extra 2 liters (67 ounces) of water might only boost energy expenditure by about 96 Calories.

For context, that’s about the number of calories in a medium banana.

Maybe you’re thinking: Doesn’t water at least dull the appetite, helping people to eat less?

It might.

One study found that downing half a liter (16 ounces) of water before meals helped people eat less and consequently lose weight.13

You can also take small sips of water between bites, which will help you eat more slowly. (And actually, eating slowly is one of the best ways to regulate your food intake. Read more: How slow eating can transform your body.)

How to calculate your water needs

How do you make sure you’re hydrated?

You have two options.

Option #1: Drink when you’re thirsty

This super-simple option works for most people, including:

✓ People who live in cool-to-moderate climates

✓ People younger than 65

✓ Non-athletes

Option #2: Monitor your urine

Some people occasionally suffer from acute dehydration.

Like when lots of stuff is coming out of both ends due to food poisoning or an infection. Or when exercising intensely in a hot climate.

As long as they replace what they lost, it’s no big deal.

How do you know if you’ve replaced what you’ve lost?

The answer: Check your toilet.

The more dehydrated you are, the greater your urine osmolality (saltiness).

Luckily, you can also assess osmolality through color: The greater the osmolality, the darker your urine.

If you compare your urine color to what’s shown on the chart below (see “Are You Hydrated?”), you’ll get an answer that’s almost as accurate as an expensive hydration test that your physician or trainer would run in the office.14

This option works best for:

✓ People who live in hot, dry environments and worry about dehydration

✓ People whose jobs make on-demand drinking difficult (such as a healthcare worker who wears a mask for a 12-hour shift)

✓ People who exercise moderately in hot and/or dry environments

✓ People who are pregnant

✓ People age 65 and older

Are you hydrated?

Use this chart to assess your hydration status.

The colors assume you’ve peed in a cup.

If you don’t want to do that (who does?) just assume that the toilet water will dilute your urine color by 1 or 2 shades.

In summary, you’re probably doing just fine.

In terms of hydration, with the above exceptions in mind, you can keep going along just like my puppy Charley.

Drink when you’re thirsty, and hopefully not from the toilet.


Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article.

If you’re a coach, or you want to be…

Learning how to coach clients, patients, friends, or family members through healthy eating and lifestyle changes—in a way that’s personalized for their unique body, preferences, and circumstances—is both an art and a science.

If you’d like to learn more about both, consider the Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certification.

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European Court of Human Rights Affirms Freedom of Religion or Belief of Russian Scientologist



LOS ANGELES, Calif., Oct. 6, 2021 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) — The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) has once again affirmed the rights of Scientologists in Russia to practice their religion based on Article 9 of the ECHR Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, announced the Church of Scientology International.

PHOTO CAPTION: European Court of Human Rights (Photo by Katrinitsa, Creative Commons license).

Article 9 states:

“Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

“Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.”

In its September 28, 2021, judgment in Kuropyatnik v. Russia, (Application no. 64403/11), the ECHR ruled that Scientologist Vladimir Leonidovich Kuropyatnik, a Moscow Scientologist, was illegally detained by a Russian police officer who questioned him on the basis of his membership in the Scientology religion.

The Court found Kuropyatnik’s October 13, 2010, detention deprived him of liberty and violated Articles 8 and 9 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms which guarantee the right to respect for private and family life and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

The ECHR noted that at the time this incident took place, the Church of Scientology had been registered as a religious organization in Russia for more than two decades and that Russian authorities had consistently over the years acknowledged the religious nature of Scientology. This Court found Russian police targeting Mr. Kuropyatnik for being a Scientologist was a blatant abuse of his religious freedom by the Russian state and ordered Russia to pay him EUR8,000 in damages for violating his human rights.

This decision is consistent with the European Court of Human Rights landmark decision of 5 April 2007 in the case Church of Scientology Moscow v. Russia (Application no. 18147/02), which overturned the Moscow city government’s refusal to register the Church of Scientology of Moscow as a religious organization. The Court found that Russia violated the rights of the Church of Scientology under ECHR Article 11 (the right to freedom of association) “read in the light of Article 9” (the right to freedom of religion) when it refused to reregister the Church of Scientology of Moscow.

Once again, the European Court of Human Rights has upheld that Scientologists are guaranteed the same rights by the European Convention on Human Rights granted to those of any other religious organization.

The European Court of Human Rights was established to create a mechanism for the resolution of human rights complaints against States parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Convention was adopted by the Council of Europe in 1950. Located in Strasbourg, France, the Court has jurisdiction over 47 states in Europe, including Russia, with a combined population of some 820 million citizens.

This announcement was originally published as a blog on the Scientology Religion website. The Church of Scientology publishes this blog to help create a better understanding of the freedom of religion and belief and provide news on religious freedom and issues affecting this freedom around the world.

The Founder of the Scientology religion is L. Ron Hubbard and Mr. David Miscavige is the religion’s ecclesiastical leader.

For more information on Scientology, visit the Scientology website or the Scientology TV network.

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News Source: Church of Scientology International

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Debt Cap Voting: Republicans Are Poised to Thwart Efforts to Raise Borrowing Limits As Defaults Are Approaching



Washington-As the country barrels towards default, Republicans are ready to sink Democratic efforts to suspend federal borrowing restrictions.

Senate Republicans are blocking measures passed in the House of Representatives that will be suspended Debt limit Until December 2022. At least 10 Republicans must join all Senate Democrats to break the GOP filibuster and pass the bill with a simple majority vote.

Democrats argue that this will give Republicans exactly what they are looking for: a country’s borrowing limit approved only by Democrats.

“Tomorrow’s vote is not a vote to raise debt caps, but rather a procedural step to get Democrats to raise debt caps,” Senate leader Chuck Schumer said Tuesday. “We’re not asking the Republicans to vote for you, they’re just letting them vote.”
more: Why Daily Americans Need to Care About Debt Caps

But the Republicans aren’t retreating. They have full control of Washington and plan to pass trillions of socio-economic packages with zero Republican input, so Democrats must act to raise their federal debt caps themselves. I’ve been doing things that don’t happen for months.

“They said they were ready to work on their own,” Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell told reporters Tuesday. “The easiest way to do this is to use the tuning process, as I’ve pointed out for two months.”

Republican McConnell has reiterated that Democrats need to raise debt limits to cover the potential trillions of costs in the unpassed portion of President Joe Biden’s agenda, but it has already taken. Debt limits need to be raised to cover spending under the unified Republican-backed Trump administration.

Senator Lindsey Graham (RS.C.) said she did not support voting on ABC News on Tuesday.

“We are not going to empower a radical march towards socialism,” said Graham, a top Republican member of the Budget Committee.

Senator Bernie Sanders, chairman of the Senate Budget Committee, has highlighted potential solutions, including temporarily suspending filibuster rules that require 60 votes for most bills.

“It could go down, at least for a demand on a debt limit to end the filibuster and pass it with 51 votes,” Sanders suggested.

However, to do this, a rally of 50 Democrats needed to remain unified, and both Senator Joe Manchin and Senator Kyrsten Sinecine of West Virginia opposed the change in filibuster rules.

Republicans haven’t been recorded yet and say they’re ready to join the Democratic Party to pave the way for a final vote on Wednesday’s debt restrictions, but moderate Senator Lisa Murkowski, R-Alaska, said Many have opened the door to potential participation.

“I want to make sure I’m doing everything I can to avoid falling into the default situation, and I don’t want to get close to it,” Marcusski said. “We need to confirm. We just need to confirm.”

The country technically reached its debt cap on August 1, and the Treasury took special steps to pay the country’s invoice. However, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said her division’s efforts would be completely exhausted by October 18, and defaults would be nearly certain.

Pressure is rising alongside party gridlock, and backup plans have not surfaced.

McConnell and his meeting insist on using a swift budgeting tool called reconciliation that allows Democrats to break filibusters and pass certain laws. The use of this mysterious process is tedious and can take weeks, freeing Democrats into a series of potentially politically distressing votes.

However, insisting on using this process could have additional political interests for Republicans. It will leave Democrats a record of raising debt caps by a large amount, but Wednesday’s vote-simply suspending debt caps at a certain amount-is not. It will affect the Republican story that Democrats are out of control spenders.

Senator Mike Rounds (RS.D.) said on Tuesday that he was “very interested in a particular amount.” “They would have to come in front of the Americans and say,’This is the amount we’re going to spend, so we’re going to increase our debt cap by X.’ There. “

Some Democrats say they support the use of a settlement if it means a quick solution to the debt restriction issue. Manchin said the process should be considered, and Connecticut Senator Richard Blumenthal said when asked by reporters whether to consider fast-track budgeting tools, “everything should be on the table. “.

But with each passing day, Democrats are limited in the amount of time they have to quickly track up debt cap increases through a multi-step process, and Democrats have not begun work on the reconciliation process, even behind the scenes. Tell ABC News about it.

“No, not at this time,” Sanders told ABC News.

Some Democrats were more emphasizing.

“The settlement was never at the table,” said Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren. “I don’t have enough time for the settlement to work.”

But on Tuesday, Schumer did not explicitly exclude it.

Schumer repeatedly mentioned Wednesday’s vote as the preferred way to raise debt caps when asked if they would be excluded using the budgeting process.

“Reconciliation is a complex process drawn out. We have shown the best way. We are moving in that direction,” Schumer refused to entertain Plan B.

If a country defaults, the consequences are definitely catastrophic. The White House warned that unprecedented defaults could shock the global economy and cause a recession. The political impact of both parties is unknown.

Copyright (C) 2021 ABCNews Internet Ventures.

Debt Cap Voting: Republicans are poised to thwart efforts to raise borrowing limits as defaults are approaching

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Which Are the Two Options You Have to Choose From If You Want to Bet on the Go?



People use their computers and laptops to bet on sports and play casino games all the time. Thanks to the different online betting websites, accessing your favorite hobby has never been easier. Everyone (assuming you live in a country where i Gaming is legal) can try out several betting websites in a matter of seconds. There are many differences between the brands, but in general, all of them allow you to use different features and promotions.

Even though those things are great, there are some drawbacks that have to be taken into account. The biggest one is related to the fact that you need to have access to a computer in order to bet. Some people don’t consider this to be a problem because their job requires them to sit in front of the computer all the time. However, others don’t have the privilege of using a PC or a laptop while at work. That’s why those people have no other option but to use their mobile devices.

We live in a world where most people around us use a smartphone or a tablet daily. We always carry those devices with us, which makes them the ideal “tool” to allow us to bet on the go. Let’s take a look at the two things that you can do if you want to have fun without the need for a computer.

Downloading and installing a mobile app

The first thing you can do if you want to use your smartphone or tablet is to download and install a mobile app. This process is complicated and it might take some time, depending on your preferred mobile OS. Luckily, punters with Android and iOS can get the BoyleSports app directly from this source by EB and start using the services of one of the most popular online betting platforms. Although you can download and install this app within seconds, there are many potential problems that some users might come across if they want other apps.

The most common issue Android users have to face is the lack of an app inside Google Play. Only a few iGaming sites have apps there, so you will most likely have to download and install an apk file. To do that, you need to open your device’s settings and enable the option to install apps from different sources.

Using a mobile website

The mobile application that you might want to download and install has a lot of advantages. However, unless you get the BoyleSports app for Android and iOS from Efirbet, you may spend a lot of time trying to find a legit apk file. The good news is that there is a solution to your problems – the mobile website.

Online bettors who don’t want to deal with the problems of getting an app can simply use the operator’s mobile website. Every online casino and bookmaker has a mobile version of its desktop site. Some of them try to make exact copies of their original websites, whereas others are more innovative. No matter which kind of mobile website you choose, it will let you bet on sports and play the casino games you want to. Furthermore, you can use the different features and promos.

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