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Unprecedented View of Single-catalyzed Nanoparticles at Work



X-ray analysis provided complete 3D images of individual catalytic nanoparticles, revealing changes in surface tension and surface chemical composition in different modes of operation.Credit: DESY Science Communication Lab

A DESY-led research team has used high-intensity X-rays to observe a single catalytic nanoparticle at work. For the first time, this experiment revealed how the chemical composition of the surface of individual nanoparticles changes and becomes more active under reaction conditions. A team led by Andreas Stierle of DESY publishes its findings in a journal. Science Advances.. This study represents an important step towards a better understanding of real industrial catalytic materials.

A catalyst is a material that promotes a chemical reaction without consuming itself. Today, catalysts are used in many industrial processes, from fertilizer production to plastic production. For this reason, catalysts are very economically important. A very well-known example is a catalytic converter installed in an automobile exhaust system. They contain precious metals such as platinum, rhodium and palladium, which can convert highly toxic carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO).2) And reduce the amount of harmful nitrogen oxides (NO)NS).

“Despite their widespread use and great importance, we still don’t know many important details about how different catalysts work,” explains Steerle, head of DESY Nano Lab. do. “That’s why we’ve always wanted to study real catalysts while driving.” This is not an easy task. This is because catalysts are usually used in small forms to make the active surface as large as possible. Nanoparticles, And changes that affect their activity occur on their surface.

Enlarged view of the nanoparticles under investigation (artist’s impression): Carbon monoxide oxidizes to carbon dioxide on the surface of the nanoparticles.Credit: DESY Science Communication Lab

Surface strain is related to chemical composition

Within the framework of the EU project Nanoscience Foundries and Fine Analysis (NFFA), the team at DESY NanoLab has developed a technique for labeling individual nanoparticles and thereby identifying them within a sample. “In this study, we grew platinum-rhodium alloy nanoparticles on the lab’s substrate and labeled one particular particle,” said Thomas Keller, co-author of the DESY Nano Lab and responsible for the DESY project. .. “The labeled particles have a diameter of about 100 nanometers, similar to the particles used in automotive catalytic converters.” Nanometers are one millionth of a millimeter.

The team was not only able to create detailed images of nanoparticles using X-rays from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF in Grenoble, France. We also measured the mechanical strain in the surface. “Surface strain is related to the surface composition, especially the ratio of platinum to rhodium atoms,” explains Philipp Plessow, co-author of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). His group calculated strain as a function of surface composition. By comparing the observed facet-dependent strain with the calculated facet-dependent strain, we can draw conclusions about the chemical composition of the particle surface. The various surfaces of nanoparticles are called facets, similar to facets of cut gemstones.

When nanoparticles grow, this composition is energetically preferred, so its surface is mainly composed of platinum atoms. However, scientists have studied particle shape and its surface strain under a variety of conditions, including the operating conditions of automotive catalytic converters. To do this, they heated the particles to about 430 degrees Celsius, allowing carbon monoxide and oxygen molecules to pass over them. “Under these reaction conditions, rhodium in the particles interacts more strongly with oxygen than platinum, making it mobile and moving to the surface,” explains Plessow. This is also predicted by theory.

“The result is a change in the surface strain and shape of the particles,” reports DESY co-author Ivan Vartaniants. His team converted the X-ray diffraction data into a 3D spatial image. “Facet-dependent enrichment of rhodium, which forms additional corners and edges.” Chemical composition Water surface, And the shape and size of the particles have a significant impact on their function and efficiency. But scientists are just beginning to understand exactly how they are connected and how they control the structure and composition of nanoparticles. X-rays allow researchers to detect changes of 0.1/1000 in strains. This corresponds to an accuracy of approximately 0.0003 nanometers (0.3 picometers) in this experiment.

Animation: During operation, (diatomic) carbon monoxide molecules oxidize to (triatomic) carbon dioxide molecules on the particles under test. X-ray light produces a characteristic diffraction pattern from which changes in surface tension, and thus changes in the chemical composition of the surface during operation, can be read.Credit: DESY Science Communication Lab

Important Steps for Analysis of Industrial Catalytic Materials

“For the first time, we were able to observe the details of these structural changes in catalytic nanoparticles during operation,” said Steerle, principal scientist at DESY and professor of nanoscience at the University of Hamburg. “This is a major step forward and will help us understand the entire class of reactions utilizing alloy nanoparticles.” KIT and DESY scientists were funded by the German Research Promotion Association (DFG) and “emission control. We would like to systematically investigate this at the new Collaborative Research Center 1441 entitled “TrackAct in Heterogeneous Catalysis for”.

“Our research is an important step towards the analysis of industrial catalytic materials,” Steerle points out. In the past, scientists had to grow model systems in the laboratory to carry out such research. “In this study, we have reached the limit of what we can do. With the X-ray microscope PETRA IV planned by DESY, we can see individual particles that are one-tenth as small as the actual catalyst. Reaction conditions“DESY is one of the world’s leading particle accelerator centers, investigating the structure and function of matter, from the interaction of small elementary particles and the behavior of new nanomaterials and important biomolecules to the mysteries of the universe. Developed by the accelerator and detector DESY and built at the locations of Hamburg and Zeuthen, they are unique research tools that generate the most powerful X-ray radiation in the world, accelerating particles and recording energy. DESY, Germany’s largest scientific association, Helmholtz Association, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) (90%) and Hamburg and Brandenburg (10%) I have received it.

Edges and corners increase the efficiency of catalytic converters

For more information:
Single alloy nanoparticle X-ray imaging during catalytic reaction; Young Yong Kim, Thomas F. Keller, Tiago J. Goncalves, Manuel Abuin, Henning Runge, Luca Gelisio, Jerome Carnis, Vedran Vonk, Philipp N. Plessow, Ivan A. Vartanyants, Andreas Stierle; Science Advances, 2021; 10.1126 / sciadv.abh0757

Quote: Https: //, taken on October 1, 2021 from an unprecedented view of working single-catalyzed nanoparticles (2021) October 1, 2014)

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Unprecedented view of single-catalyzed nanoparticles at work

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European Court of Human Rights Affirms Freedom of Religion or Belief of Russian Scientologist



LOS ANGELES, Calif., Oct. 6, 2021 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) — The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) has once again affirmed the rights of Scientologists in Russia to practice their religion based on Article 9 of the ECHR Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, announced the Church of Scientology International.

PHOTO CAPTION: European Court of Human Rights (Photo by Katrinitsa, Creative Commons license).

Article 9 states:

“Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

“Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.”

In its September 28, 2021, judgment in Kuropyatnik v. Russia, (Application no. 64403/11), the ECHR ruled that Scientologist Vladimir Leonidovich Kuropyatnik, a Moscow Scientologist, was illegally detained by a Russian police officer who questioned him on the basis of his membership in the Scientology religion.

The Court found Kuropyatnik’s October 13, 2010, detention deprived him of liberty and violated Articles 8 and 9 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms which guarantee the right to respect for private and family life and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

The ECHR noted that at the time this incident took place, the Church of Scientology had been registered as a religious organization in Russia for more than two decades and that Russian authorities had consistently over the years acknowledged the religious nature of Scientology. This Court found Russian police targeting Mr. Kuropyatnik for being a Scientologist was a blatant abuse of his religious freedom by the Russian state and ordered Russia to pay him EUR8,000 in damages for violating his human rights.

This decision is consistent with the European Court of Human Rights landmark decision of 5 April 2007 in the case Church of Scientology Moscow v. Russia (Application no. 18147/02), which overturned the Moscow city government’s refusal to register the Church of Scientology of Moscow as a religious organization. The Court found that Russia violated the rights of the Church of Scientology under ECHR Article 11 (the right to freedom of association) “read in the light of Article 9” (the right to freedom of religion) when it refused to reregister the Church of Scientology of Moscow.

Once again, the European Court of Human Rights has upheld that Scientologists are guaranteed the same rights by the European Convention on Human Rights granted to those of any other religious organization.

The European Court of Human Rights was established to create a mechanism for the resolution of human rights complaints against States parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Convention was adopted by the Council of Europe in 1950. Located in Strasbourg, France, the Court has jurisdiction over 47 states in Europe, including Russia, with a combined population of some 820 million citizens.

This announcement was originally published as a blog on the Scientology Religion website. The Church of Scientology publishes this blog to help create a better understanding of the freedom of religion and belief and provide news on religious freedom and issues affecting this freedom around the world.

The Founder of the Scientology religion is L. Ron Hubbard and Mr. David Miscavige is the religion’s ecclesiastical leader.

For more information on Scientology, visit the Scientology website or the Scientology TV network.

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News Source: Church of Scientology International

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Debt Cap Voting: Republicans Are Poised to Thwart Efforts to Raise Borrowing Limits As Defaults Are Approaching



Washington-As the country barrels towards default, Republicans are ready to sink Democratic efforts to suspend federal borrowing restrictions.

Senate Republicans are blocking measures passed in the House of Representatives that will be suspended Debt limit Until December 2022. At least 10 Republicans must join all Senate Democrats to break the GOP filibuster and pass the bill with a simple majority vote.

Democrats argue that this will give Republicans exactly what they are looking for: a country’s borrowing limit approved only by Democrats.

“Tomorrow’s vote is not a vote to raise debt caps, but rather a procedural step to get Democrats to raise debt caps,” Senate leader Chuck Schumer said Tuesday. “We’re not asking the Republicans to vote for you, they’re just letting them vote.”
more: Why Daily Americans Need to Care About Debt Caps

But the Republicans aren’t retreating. They have full control of Washington and plan to pass trillions of socio-economic packages with zero Republican input, so Democrats must act to raise their federal debt caps themselves. I’ve been doing things that don’t happen for months.

“They said they were ready to work on their own,” Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell told reporters Tuesday. “The easiest way to do this is to use the tuning process, as I’ve pointed out for two months.”

Republican McConnell has reiterated that Democrats need to raise debt limits to cover the potential trillions of costs in the unpassed portion of President Joe Biden’s agenda, but it has already taken. Debt limits need to be raised to cover spending under the unified Republican-backed Trump administration.

Senator Lindsey Graham (RS.C.) said she did not support voting on ABC News on Tuesday.

“We are not going to empower a radical march towards socialism,” said Graham, a top Republican member of the Budget Committee.

Senator Bernie Sanders, chairman of the Senate Budget Committee, has highlighted potential solutions, including temporarily suspending filibuster rules that require 60 votes for most bills.

“It could go down, at least for a demand on a debt limit to end the filibuster and pass it with 51 votes,” Sanders suggested.

However, to do this, a rally of 50 Democrats needed to remain unified, and both Senator Joe Manchin and Senator Kyrsten Sinecine of West Virginia opposed the change in filibuster rules.

Republicans haven’t been recorded yet and say they’re ready to join the Democratic Party to pave the way for a final vote on Wednesday’s debt restrictions, but moderate Senator Lisa Murkowski, R-Alaska, said Many have opened the door to potential participation.

“I want to make sure I’m doing everything I can to avoid falling into the default situation, and I don’t want to get close to it,” Marcusski said. “We need to confirm. We just need to confirm.”

The country technically reached its debt cap on August 1, and the Treasury took special steps to pay the country’s invoice. However, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said her division’s efforts would be completely exhausted by October 18, and defaults would be nearly certain.

Pressure is rising alongside party gridlock, and backup plans have not surfaced.

McConnell and his meeting insist on using a swift budgeting tool called reconciliation that allows Democrats to break filibusters and pass certain laws. The use of this mysterious process is tedious and can take weeks, freeing Democrats into a series of potentially politically distressing votes.

However, insisting on using this process could have additional political interests for Republicans. It will leave Democrats a record of raising debt caps by a large amount, but Wednesday’s vote-simply suspending debt caps at a certain amount-is not. It will affect the Republican story that Democrats are out of control spenders.

Senator Mike Rounds (RS.D.) said on Tuesday that he was “very interested in a particular amount.” “They would have to come in front of the Americans and say,’This is the amount we’re going to spend, so we’re going to increase our debt cap by X.’ There. “

Some Democrats say they support the use of a settlement if it means a quick solution to the debt restriction issue. Manchin said the process should be considered, and Connecticut Senator Richard Blumenthal said when asked by reporters whether to consider fast-track budgeting tools, “everything should be on the table. “.

But with each passing day, Democrats are limited in the amount of time they have to quickly track up debt cap increases through a multi-step process, and Democrats have not begun work on the reconciliation process, even behind the scenes. Tell ABC News about it.

“No, not at this time,” Sanders told ABC News.

Some Democrats were more emphasizing.

“The settlement was never at the table,” said Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren. “I don’t have enough time for the settlement to work.”

But on Tuesday, Schumer did not explicitly exclude it.

Schumer repeatedly mentioned Wednesday’s vote as the preferred way to raise debt caps when asked if they would be excluded using the budgeting process.

“Reconciliation is a complex process drawn out. We have shown the best way. We are moving in that direction,” Schumer refused to entertain Plan B.

If a country defaults, the consequences are definitely catastrophic. The White House warned that unprecedented defaults could shock the global economy and cause a recession. The political impact of both parties is unknown.

Copyright (C) 2021 ABCNews Internet Ventures.

Debt Cap Voting: Republicans are poised to thwart efforts to raise borrowing limits as defaults are approaching

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Which Are the Two Options You Have to Choose From If You Want to Bet on the Go?



People use their computers and laptops to bet on sports and play casino games all the time. Thanks to the different online betting websites, accessing your favorite hobby has never been easier. Everyone (assuming you live in a country where i Gaming is legal) can try out several betting websites in a matter of seconds. There are many differences between the brands, but in general, all of them allow you to use different features and promotions.

Even though those things are great, there are some drawbacks that have to be taken into account. The biggest one is related to the fact that you need to have access to a computer in order to bet. Some people don’t consider this to be a problem because their job requires them to sit in front of the computer all the time. However, others don’t have the privilege of using a PC or a laptop while at work. That’s why those people have no other option but to use their mobile devices.

We live in a world where most people around us use a smartphone or a tablet daily. We always carry those devices with us, which makes them the ideal “tool” to allow us to bet on the go. Let’s take a look at the two things that you can do if you want to have fun without the need for a computer.

Downloading and installing a mobile app

The first thing you can do if you want to use your smartphone or tablet is to download and install a mobile app. This process is complicated and it might take some time, depending on your preferred mobile OS. Luckily, punters with Android and iOS can get the BoyleSports app directly from this source by EB and start using the services of one of the most popular online betting platforms. Although you can download and install this app within seconds, there are many potential problems that some users might come across if they want other apps.

The most common issue Android users have to face is the lack of an app inside Google Play. Only a few iGaming sites have apps there, so you will most likely have to download and install an apk file. To do that, you need to open your device’s settings and enable the option to install apps from different sources.

Using a mobile website

The mobile application that you might want to download and install has a lot of advantages. However, unless you get the BoyleSports app for Android and iOS from Efirbet, you may spend a lot of time trying to find a legit apk file. The good news is that there is a solution to your problems – the mobile website.

Online bettors who don’t want to deal with the problems of getting an app can simply use the operator’s mobile website. Every online casino and bookmaker has a mobile version of its desktop site. Some of them try to make exact copies of their original websites, whereas others are more innovative. No matter which kind of mobile website you choose, it will let you bet on sports and play the casino games you want to. Furthermore, you can use the different features and promos.

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